You sometimes speak of Gravity as essential and inherent to Matter. Pray do not ascribe that Notion to me, for the cause of Gravity is what I do not pretend to know, and therefore would take more time to consider it.
Isaac Newton, 2nd Letter to Richard Bentley, 17 Jan, 1692-3, Quoted in "Forces in Physics: A Historical Perspective", p66
Something shameful has occurred. While perfectly ordinary people intelligently carry on with their lives; manufacturing technology, gardening, serving food at restraunts, making music, running governments and the all the rest of the extraordinary plethora of human activity, a failing at the highest levels of human endeavour has occurred. It has been said that mathematics is the "Queen of the sciences", however as the scientist and scientific commentator Wal Thornhill has pointed out, it is actually Cosmology that has become so fundamentally fused with mathematics that, at its ultimate expression, it is actually Cosmology that has become the aformentioned "Queen of the sciences". Fundamental errors of scientific reasoning justified by the misuse of that mathematics have caused a travesty in that endeavour named Cosmology. The conceits and errors originating in the behaviour of that Queen have filtered down to other areas of the scientific process. One of the prime examples of this is the health sciences where we see this fundamental error expressed in the application of sciences that deny the electrical nature of the universe and, by extension, the electrical nature of biological phenomena. So while good people, on the most part, live free of these fundamental errors in science, many are having their health damaged by a flawed health science born of the incompetence of the Queen of the sciences. This manifests itself in the behaviour of the pharmaceutical companies and the doctors that slavishly follow their errors. The origin of this error is evaded by excusing damage done to people's health with phrases such as "side effects".
In the area of the health sciences the damage is being done now. But what about in the area of cosmology itself ? Here an even greater danger exposes itself. With the denial by so many scientists of these fundamental errors and misjudgements in science we are not officially understanding the nature of our immediate Solar System environment and the galactic environment beyond that. There is already evidence of dramatic and destructive events that have happened in the Solar System in the past. Here the great danger exposes itself. So many scientists refuse to confront these fundamental errors in our understanding of the Sun and plasma phenomena, to such an extent, that they are flouting the role entrusted in them by perfectly ordinary people. Our technological infrastructure is already vunerable to what is called Space Weather - the electrical environment of the Sun. It has become totally unacceptable to continue to put up with the redactions of these scientific Queens who commonly shout down and repress discussion and debate on these issues. Their anger blinds them to the great danger, much as, to use a fictionalised example of the same thing, the Vulcan High Command is blinded by their anger as depicted in the Star Trek Enterprise episodes The Forge and Awakening.
The Queen must be thrown from her throne.
Beware of first-hand ideas! [...] First-hand ideas do not really exist [...] Let your ideas be second-hand, and if possible, tenth-hand, for then they will be far-removed from that disturbing element-direct observation.
The Machine Stops, E M Forster (1909).
Major discoveries, I said, are not like the discovery of America, where the general nature of the discovered object is already known. Rather, they are like recognizing that one has been dreaming.
Killing Time: The Autobiography of Paul Feyerabend, p.92.
It was ... quite a shock to hear Feigl expound fundamental difficulties and to hear him explain in perfectly simple language without any recourse to formalism why the problem of application [of the probability-calculus] was still without a solution. Formalization, then, was not the last word in philosophical matters. There was still room for fundamental discussion-for speculation (dreaded word!); there was still a possibility of overthrowing highly formalized systems with the help of a little common sense!
Paul Feyerabend, Existential Hypotheses (1950), p5.
According to Feyerabend, only by endorsing scientific realism can the scientist cleave to a methodology which would consistently bring out the (conceptually) revolutionary potential of scientific theories, rekindling the kind of fire Galileo had lit under the Aristotelian world-view.
Paul Feyerabend - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
It is totally absurd to put so much emphasis on gravity in cosmological science. Every school boy should know this. It is really just fundamental "O" level science.
Understanding Physics (Google eBook), Michael Mansfield, Colm O'Sullivan, "Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course.".
Forces in Physics: A Historical Perspective, By Steven N. Shore, p174, ABC-CLIO, 30 Jul 2008.
Forces in Nature: Understanding Gravitational, Electrical, and Magnetic Force, Liz Sonneborn, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2005.
"To give you an idea, the electromagnetic force is approximately 1036 times stronger than the earth's gravitational field! That is (to put it in perspective) 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 times stronger than gravity on Earth!"
Source: The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment.
"Gravity, the weakest of the four forces, is about 10-36 times the strength of the strong force. This weakness is easily demonstrable - on a dry day, rub a comb across your shirt to give it static electricity, then hold it over a piece of paper on a desk. If you were successful, the piece of paper lifts off the desk. It takes an entire planet to keep the paper on the desk, but this force is easily overcome with everyday materials employing the electromagnetic force."
"The electromagnetic force also has infinite range but it is many times stronger than gravity."
"...electromagnetism, for instance, which is the binding force for virtually all ordinary biological and chemical phenomena or Earth, is intrinsically 10^39 times stronger than gravity."
Source: THE IEEE NUCLEAR AND PLASMA SCIENCES SOCIETY.
"...electromagnetic forces are so enormously strong, 1040 times stronger than gravity."
Source: MIT Physics 8.02, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
"In fact, the electromagnetic force is many times stronger than gravity."
Source: Cornell University Library.
One would expect there to be a large bias towards our relationship with gravity. Just like the air it is one of our most immediate concerns that we deal with where we live. This is anthropomorphic and anthropic, meaning it is our own immediate relationship with the reality that we find ourselves in as humans that effects our outlook. There is really nothing strange about this or controversial when this is looked at in this way. Most people have not experienced zero gravity or been out in the universe and seen the vastly more powerful electromagnetic forces at work. We do see this in a small way as the northern lights (Aurora) or even as the light coming from the Sun which is another electrical property. But in the common human experience it is gravity that effects so many things that we do. The engineering of structures, even the way we walk are all determined in some way by gravity. However that gravity, in the way we experience it, is a product of of what is really a very thin surface wrapped around a sphere - our planet - that we happen to live in (I thank Wal Thornhill for this insight). This bias has carried through into the cosmological sciences. It does skew many discoveries and can cause sociological stress - especially between many eminent scientists of one kind of another who might disagree on these points. But we have only relatively recently established a rational and logical form of science born out of many struggles over the centuries. That science is still evolving away from some principles that have been influenced by anthropomorphic concerns. So when an eminent scientist says "bah!" to Electric Universe science, just pause and consider for a moment. This is not surprising !
Well, first of all this is an important area when it comes to reason and our approach to reality. There is strong evidence to show that the electric force is vastly more influential than gravity than it has commonly been seen to be up to fairly recently. Sadly some of "mainstream" Science has given into mystical, badly formed and even sometimes religously dogmatic ideas about "the way reality works". Science is supposed to allow a commonly researched understanding of common physical phenomena. However sometimes Scientists see their own theories as determing reality. This is the wrong way round. Discoveries and facts must change the theory. For many reasons this is acutely obvious in Cosmology to the point of utter absurdity in many cases. I will leave it to the reader to examine the field of Electric Universe Cosmology and come to their own conclusions.
So apart from it's importance to the health of human reason, in what other ways is Plasma Cosmology and Electric Universe important ? Well here are a few.
And these are just three of the major themes ! At the present time we are seeing a massive revolution in Science. Many will not be aware of this for maybe a couple of decades yet when, for example, the first anti-gravity cars and flying vehicles arrive or the Cold Fusion reaction is honed to the point where it can be used for a Star Drive. Some may guffaw at such bold statements, but consider this. Before 1903 it was unheard of for a human being to leave the ground in a powered heavier than air vehicle, and fly like the birds using wings, yet now this is almost a mundane reality.
There are four known fundamental forces that are mediated by fields. They are described in the Standard Model of particle physics. As yet we do not have a unified theory - A UNIFIED FIELD - that can explain phenomena that takes into account these four fundamental forces ... commonly known as the forces of gravity and electromagnetism.
In the mid nineties a friend of mine exclaimed "Have you heard of the Unified Field". As it turned out this short phrase led to a profound examination of what I had been taught is "your reality". I started moving from seeing the world based on what I had been told that it is, towards raw investigation of what I was actually encountering.
I would not recommend the Wikipedia article or any other article on the "Unified Field" as the field (no pun intended) is rife with competing theories, bad science, inappropriate behavior and just down right nastiness from many characters who "want to be the one" to solve the problem. These days problems are solved by collaboration, not in some eureka moment that is claimed by an individual.
What I would recommend is getting back in touch with your SENSES if you aren't already. Try and see the phenomena that ARE THERE IN FRONT OF YOU, rather than seeing WHAT YOU ARE TOLD IS THERE IN FRONT OF YOU. If you are truly interested it is crucial that YOU become the Scientist in the true meaning of the word. That starts with authentic observation of phenomena and the world around us. Of course the resulting observations, which lead to theories and experimentation, still have to be tested in practice by other Scientists, that is what Science is all about ! So we should not be afraid to record what OUR SENSES are telling us, however outlandish or "silly", because these are the raw materials of Science.
This is where what has come to be called Electric Universe Theory (official name - Plasma Cosmology) comes into play. Many of the people and groups who identify with this endeavor are simply practicing the above; making commonsensical observations and attempting to test those observations in action.
This is a developing article but to give a flavour of the type of Science at work here consider the Photon. Everyday we encounter light and yet it may not be the quite the phenomenon that we think it is.
"Electromagnetic interaction: the familiar interaction that acts on electrically charged particles. The photon is the exchange particle for this force."
"Light and other electromagnetic waves take the form of quantized, self-propagating oscillatory electromagnetic field disturbances called photons."
This is why Solar Panels can produce electricity. This is why plants are likely doing something electrical in photosynthesis;
"In another paper published in that same year, Albert Einstein undermined the very foundations of classical electromagnetism. His theory of the photoelectric effect (for which he won the Nobel prize for physics) posited that light could exist in discrete particle-like quantities, which later came to be known as photons
Here is a currently accepted model of dark matter distribution in the Universe.
Here is plasma doing it's thing, electrically (the Crab Nebulae).
To anyone familiar with Birkland Currents and the behaviour of plasma the model in the top image has a familiar look to it. But this pattern was generated using gravity based models. The model has been kludged or hacked with "dark matter" to make it work despite the evidence. Dark matter represents the unsolved Unified Field equations - unifying gravity and electromagnetic models - that, ironically, Einstein warned the physics community was a such a crucial problem to solve. Yet many are clinging to outdated models in the face of a lot of evidence. Dark matter is no longer "dark", it is plasma - electricity - see the light !
Alfvén, H. (1977), "Electric currents in cosmic plasmas, Rev. Geophys., 15(3), 271-284.
Sand dollar zygotes during first mitosis, fixed and stained for microtubules and chromosomes (single confocal sections). Top row: metaphase, early anaphase, late anaphase; bottom row: successive stages in furrowing. A variety of experiments imply that microtubules stimulate cortical contractility in the cell equator, but also many experiments purport to show that microtubules are dispensable after mid-anaphase (right-most frame in the top row). In an urchin egg like this one, microtubules have reached the cell poles at this stage, but not the equator. They only reach the equator after furrow initiation (left frame, bottom row). How can this be?
The process shown above of cell Mitosis (cell division) is stained to show processes that would otherwise be too faint to be seen. To any electrical engineer or plasma cosmologist images such as this of mitosis present a familiar sight. Here we are likely seeing an electrical phenomenon happening at the microcosmic level. There doesn't really have to be anything really mystical or "sacred" about this in Scientific terms (although that can certainly be the case). Just as the study of Physics shows we can expect to see commonly found physical processes at many different scales in the Universe, this is exactly what observations of natural phenomena show. In fact this is known as Scale Invariance in Physics which is related to manifestation of phenomena at different scales of reality - global scaling - or more specifically how certain principles and calculations in Physics can be applied to different phenomena even at vastly different scales ... with some adjustments, hence some of the calculations on the Scale Invariance Wikipedia page.
Is there any evidence that Mitosis is an electrical phenomenon ? Yes ! Radio emissions have been detected happening as Mitosis occurs.
Radiofrequency emission spectra from yeast cells in Mitosis, taken from the paper Magnetic flux quantization and Josephson behaviour in living systems, Physica Scripta. Vol. 40, 786-791, 1989 (page 790).
There's only one way radio waves can be produced and that is by an electrical current. This is exactly how a radio transmitter produces radio waves.
The last 150 to 200 years has been an unusual period of history where discernment of certain obvious natural phenomena was partially lost. These phenomena have always been more honestly perceived by more ancient civilisations. However this loss of knowledge has really been taking place at the highest levels of so called "orthodox" Science. Various technologies have been developed outside of these structures; aircraft, computers and so forth. For example semiconductors implement discoveries in the field of Quantum Physics that are still not accepted or are controversial in "orthodox" Science, but that does not stop us from using our mobile phones. But in a world that is increasingly moving into a stage of development that includes the environment outside of Earth it is increasingly important to be clear about many types of Cosmological phenomena. This is also important in the development of clean technologies on Earth where protection of the environment and human welfare is becoming increasingly important. Over the next few years or decades we will no doubt see changes in currently accepted gravity based Cosmological science. Scientific understanding will change as it has changed so many times before in the history of science. In fact, if there's anything to learn from this entire episode then its the importance of carefully understanding the history of Science. I guide readers to the works of Paul Feyerabend, such as Farewell to Reason.